History, Geography, Homes, and State Resources of New York
New York USA Map
Although the Empire State of New York is best identified with its urban allure and bright lights of New York City, it's; only half an hour and traveling just a few miles
from the outskirts of the Big Apple of new York to find the state's natural spectacular wonders.
Included are acres of mountains, farmland, forests and lakes, along with the most renowned "honeymoon capital" in the world at Niagara Falls. Besides a booming tourism
trade, the diverse state economy is headed up by the central position New York City participates in as headquarters to many of the world's top corporations. In addition,
New York is a leader in clothing, fashion, manufacturing, agriculture and hi-tech, Additionally, its expanding wine industry is home to 212 wineries located on over
30,000 acres in Long Island and upstate vineyards.
Although the Big Apple is thought to be the culprit for the overall high living cost in the state (about. 25% higher than the U.S. national average) the more the distance
is from the city environment, generally the more affordable the state is. The "second city", of new York, Buffalo, for instance boasts the next strongest economy in the
state, but nonetheless has been named as one of the nation's most affordable places to live. Home to practically 700 high-tech firms, Buffalo provides extensive networks
of fiber optics which also gives it the label of being among the the better wired municipally's in America.
The climate of New York state is generally humid continental, while the extreme southeastern portion of the state (New York City area)
is in the warm humid subtropical climate zone. Winter temperatures average below freezing during January and February in much of New York state, but several degrees above freezing along the Atlantic coastline, including New York City.
The average temperature in January is 33 °F, and in of July the average is 76 °F.
New York Colleges.
At the level of post-secondary education, the statewide public university system is the State University of New York, commonly referred to as SUNY. New York City also has its
own City University of New York system, which is funded by the city. The SUNY system consists of 64 community colleges, colleges, undergraduate colleges and promotional
institutions, including several universities. New York's largest public university is the State University of New York at Buffalo, which was founded by US President and Vice
President Millard Fillmore. The four SUNY University Centers offering a wide range of academic programs are the University of Albany, Binghamton University, Stony Brook
University and the University of Buffalo
New York City and the surrounding New York metropolitan area dominate the economy of the state. Manhattan is the leading center of banking, finance, and communication in the United States and is the location of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) on Wall Street. Many of the world's largest corporations
have their home offices in Manhattan or in nearby Westchester County.
The state is an agricultural leader and is one of the top five states for agricultural products, including dairy, cattle, apples, cabbages, potatoes, beets, viniculture, onions, maple syrup and many others. The state is the second largest producer of cabbage in the U.S.
About a quarter of the land of New York is made up of farms and produced $3.4 billion in agricultural products in 2001. The south shore of Lake Ontario
has the right soil mix and microclimate for apple, cherry, plum, pear and peach orchards
Flora and Fauna
New York State Flower - Rose
New York State Tree - Sugar Maple
New York State Bird - Eastern Bluebird
New York has some 150 species of trees. Post and willow oak, laurel magnolia, sweet gum, and hop trees dominate the Atlantic shore areas, while oak, hickory, and chestnut thrive in the Hudson and Mohawk valleys and the Great Lakes Plain. Birch, beech, basswood, white oak, and commercially valuable maple are found on the Appalachian Plateau and in the foothills of the Adirondack Mountains. The bulk of the Adirondacks and Catskills is covered with red and black spruce, balsam fir, and mountain ash, as well as white pine and maple. Spruce, balsam fir, paper birch, and mountain ash rise to the timberline while only the hardiest plant species grow above it. Larch, mulberry, locust, and several kinds of willow are among the many varieties that have been introduced throughout the state. Apple trees and other fruit-bearing species are important in western New York and the Hudson Valley.
Common meadow flowers include several types of rose (the state flower), along with dandelion, Queen Anne's lace, goldenrod, and black-eyed Susan. Wild sarsaparilla, Solomon's seal, Indian pipe, bunchberry, and goldthread flourish amid the forests. Cattails grow in profusion along the Hudson, and rushes cover the Finger Lakes shallows. Among protected plants are all species of fern, bayberry, lotus, all native orchids, five species of rhododendron (including azalea), and trillium. Six plant species were listed as threatened or endangered in 2003, including the sandplain gerardia, American hart's-tongue fern, and Leedy's roseroot.
Some 600 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles are found in New York, of which more than 450 species are common. Mammals in abundance include many mouse species, the snowshoe hare, common and New England cottontails, woodchuck, squirrel, muskrat, and raccoon. The deer population has been estimated at as many as 500,000, making them a pest causing millions of dollars annually in crop damage. The wolverine, elk, and moose were all wiped out during the 19th century, and the otter, mink, marten, and fisher populations were drastically reduced; but the beaver, nearly eliminated by fur trappers, had come back strongly by 1940.
More than 260 bird species have been observed. The most common year-round residents are the crow, hawk, and several types of woodpecker. Summer visitors are many, and include the bluebird (the state bird). The wild turkey, which disappeared during the 19th century, was successfully reestablished in the 1970s. The house (or English) sparrow has been in New York since its introduction in the 1800s.
The common toad, newt, and several species of frog and salamander inhabit New York waters. Garter snakes, water snakes, grass snakes, and milk snakes are common; rattlesnakes formerly thrived in the Adirondacks. There are 210 known species of fish; 130 species are found in the Hudson, 120 in the Lake Ontario watershed. Freshwater fish include species of perch, bass, pike, and trout (the state fish). Oysters, clams, and several saltwater fish species are found in Long Island Sound. Of insect varieties, the praying mantis is looked upon as a friend (since it eats insects that prey on crops and trees) while the gypsy moth has been singled out as an enemy in periodic state-run pest-control programs.
In 2003, twenty animal species were classified as threatened or endangered, including the Indiana bat, Karner blue butterfly, piping plover, bald eagle, shortnose sturgeon, three species of whale, and five species of turtle.
The New York State Capitol, the seat of New York State government, is located in Albany, the capital city of New York
state. The capitol building is part of the Empire State Plaza complex on State Street in Capitol Park. Housing the New York State Legislature, the building was completed in 1899 at a cost of
$25 million (equivalent to $735 million in 2018), making it the most expensive government building of its time. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971, then included as a contributing property when the Lafayette Park Historic District was listed in 1978. The New York State Capitol was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1979.
The state's only elected executives are the governor, lieutenant governor, comptroller, and attorney general. Each serves a four-year term. The governor
and lieutenant governor are jointly elected; there is no limit to the number of terms they may serve. The governor must be at least 30 years old, a US citizen,
and a resident of the state for five years prior to the date of election. The lieutenant governor is next in line for the governorship (should the governor be
unable to complete his or her term in office) and presides over the senate.
The governor appoints the heads of most of the major executive departments, with some of the appointments requiring the advice and consent of the senate. The exceptions are the comptroller and attorney general, who are elected by the voters; the commissioner of education, who is named by the Regents of the University of the State of New York; the commissioner of social services, elected by the Board of Social Services; and the chief of the Executive Department, which the governor heads ex officio.
Voters in New York must be US citizens, at least 18 years old, residents of the county (or New York City) for 30 days prior to election day, and unable to claim the right to vote elsewhere. Restrictions apply to convicted felons and those declared mentally incompetent by the court.
It's not a simple task to select only a handful of top attractions to represent the entire state of New York
as there is nearly and endless list things to see and do, from the historic to the most contemporary. New York City is undeniably the state's most popular tourist destination, but is so packed with famous attractions that visitors to the Big Apple will be more than satisfied with one bite at a time. The borough of Manhattan is home to many of the city's top destinations, like Central Park, Times Square, the Empire State Building, and much more. Upstate New York, as locals call pretty much anything north of the city, is known for its many lakes and mountains and is popular year-round.
Latimer Reef Lighthouse
Lighthouses in New York
List of lighthouses in the state of New York as identified by the United States Coast Guard.
Whether warning of danger or marking safe passage into a harbor, lighthouses stand as beacons of safety and security. Perhaps it is because of this and the imagery of light that lighthouses seem to appeal to the spiritual side of people, symbolizing He who is “the Light that shineth in darkness” and reminding us that we are also to let our “lights so shine.”
Adventureland is an amusement park in East Farmingdale, New York, located on Route 110 (Broad Hollow Road). Adventureland has been Long Island's main amusement park since 1962. There are a total of thirty rides, two of which are roller coasters and three are water rides. Adventureland is open seasonally: weekends in March, April, May, October and September and all days in the summer.
Deno's Wonder Wheel Amusement Park is a family-owned amusement park located at Coney Island, Brooklyn, New York City featuring 5 adult rides and 16 kiddie rides, including a dozen family rides that parents and children can ride together. Their main attraction is the Wonder Wheel, a hundred and fifty foot eccentric wheel built in 1920. On the Wonder Wheel, 16 out of 24 of its gondolas run down a short track inside of the wheel swinging in and out of it as they reach the top.
Luna Park is the name of an amusement park in the neighborhood of Coney Island, Brooklyn in New York City that opened on May 29, 2010, at the former site of Astroland, an amusement park that had been in operation for 46 years. It was named after the original 1903 Luna Park which existed until 1944 on a site just north of the current park's 1000 Surf Avenue location.
As of July 2017, there are five roller coasters at Playland:
Dragon Coaster - Wooden – Built in 1929 – 3400 feet of track – 80 feet high – Approx 45 mph
Super Flight (Zamperla Flying) – Built in 2004 – 1282 feet of track – 26 mph – 2 inversions
Crazy Mouse – Steel (wild mouse) – Built in 2003
Family Flyer – Steel – Built in 2001 – 262 feet of track - 13 feet high
Darien Lake is a theme park resort in New York, Located in Darien, New York, United States. It is owned by EPR Properties and operated by Six Flags. In addition to the amusement park, it features a campground, water park, and an on-site lodging.
Rollercoasters include: Boomerang: Coast to Coaster, Hoot N Holler, Mind Eraser, Moto Coaster, The Predator, Ride of Steel, The Viper and Tantrum
Enchanted Forest Water Safari (originally, The Enchanted Forest of the Adirondacks) is an amusement park in Old Forge, New York.
Among amusement and water rides, Enchanted Forest includes 32 heated water rides, including Curse of the Silverback, Killermanjaro, The Shadow, Black River and Rondaxe Run. The park features two circus shows (at noon and at 4 pm), a petting zoo, an Enchanted Forest Water Safari museum and multiple video game arcades and side show games throughout the park. Adjoining the park is the Calypso's Cove which includes an arcade, go-carts, children's go-carts, rock climbing, mini-golf, batting cages, bumper boats, and a zip line.
Great Escape (sometimes referred to as Six Flags Great Escape) is an amusement and water park owned and operated by Six Flags Entertainment Corp. It is located approximately 60 miles north of Albany, in Queensbury, New York,
although advertised as being in Lake George, New York, a popular tourist and vacation spot nearby. It is one of two Six Flags parks not to be officially branded with the "Six Flags" name (La Ronde in Montreal, Quebec, Canada being the other).
Greek Peak Mountain Resort is a ski resort, with a vertical drop of 952 feet, located near Cortland, New York. Greek Peak offers day and night skiing
seven days a week from late December until mid March. This mountain features 55 trails with varied terrain. It also has
six lifts, two magic carpet lifts, and a tubing center with a tubing handle tow. A cross country Nordic center featuring 10 trails is also available. A terrain park with various elements is also located on the mountain along with the Progression Park, which is more suited for people just starting out.
The Magic Forest is an amusement park located in Lake George, NY along Route 9. it features the largest Uncle Sam statue in the world, a magic show, and the only remaining diving horse attraction, Lightning. Lightning makes two dives a day and is the son of Rex who made daily dives in Atlantic City. Along the winding park trails, visitors encounter cottages and attractions which tell the story of the Three Little Pigs, Jack Sprat, Hansel and Gretel, various princesses, Paul Bunyan, Pecos Bill, the Statue of Liberty, and the Spider Man. The park's famous Santa Claus overlooks the parking lot. Magic Forest also has a small petting zoo where children can feed the animals
There are 19 children's rides, four adult rides, a train, a tram, the Mile Long Safari, the Fairy Tale Trail, and Lightning the Diving Horse,
bringing the total number of attractions to 25.
Fantasy Island, Grand Island
Fantasy Island has three operating roller coasters as of 2017
Max's Doggy Dog Coaster, Crazy Mouse and the Silver Comet
Midway State Park, located in Maple Springs, New York, was established in 1898 by the Jamestown & Lake Erie Railway as a picnic ground. Today, it is recognized as the fifteenth-oldest continually operating amusement park in the United States, and the fifth-oldest remaining trolley park of the thirteen still operating in the United States.
The park has 18 child-oriented rides, plus miniature golf, Go-Karts, a climbing wall, and water games. Many of the kiddie rides were manufactured by the Allan Herschell Company of North Tonawanda, New York.
Legoland (trademark in uppercase as LEGOLAND) is a chain of family theme parks, which has its main focus on the toy Lego. They are not fully owned by The Lego Group itself; rather they are owned and operated by the British theme park company Merlin Entertainments.
The parks are marketed to families with younger children (11 and under), and although the attractions include a number of roller coasters, the roller coasters are not as numerous or as extreme as those in other parks, and
the emphasis on rides suitable for younger children. Legoland parks are divided into various areas, which are consistent among the chain's parks. For example, all six of the parks include a Lego miniland, a model village which includes models of landmarks and scenes from around the world, made from millions of genuine Lego bricks.
Santa's Workshop in North Pole, a hamlet in Wilmington, New York, USA, is an amusement park that has been in operation since 1949. It was one of the first theme parks in the
nation. It is open from June through December.
the twelfth-oldest operating amusement park in the world (fourth-oldest in the
nation). Its most celebrated ride is the Jack Rabbit, an "out and back" roller coaster, and the fourth-oldest operating roller coaster in the world (opened 1920). It is owned and operated by the Norris family, many of whom lived on the property for years.
The Appalachian Trail is a 2,180+ mile long public footpath that traverses the scenic, wooded, pastoral, wild, and culturally resonant lands of the Appalachian Mountains. Conceived in 1921, built by private citizens, and completed in 1937, today the trail is managed by the National Park Service, US Forest Service, Appalachian Trail Conservancy, numerous state agencies and thousands of volunteers.
Four hundred years ago Englishman John Smith and a small crew of adventurers set out in an open boat to explore the Chesapeake Bay. Between 1607 and 1609 Smith and his crew mapped nearly 3,000 miles of the Bay and rivers and documented American Indian communities. Smith’s map and journals are a remarkable record of the 17th-century Chesapeake. Come join the adventure on the Chesapeake Bay!
The Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in North America. Here, you can visit major league cities, colonial towns, American Indian landscapes, farms and fishing villages. You can learn to kayak, pick crabs, go fishing, tour a lighthouse, slurp oysters, and slow down to enjoy the natural beauty of the Chesapeake.
How far would you travel to find a better life? What if the journey took weeks under difficult conditions? If you answered "Whatever it takes," you echo the feelings of the 12 million immigrants who passed through these now quiet halls from 1892 to 1954. Ellis Island afforded them the opportunity to attain the American dream for themselves and their descendants. Come hear their stories.
Immerse yourself in an enchanting collage of coastal life and history. Rhythmic waves, high dunes, ancient maritime forests, historic landmarks and glimpses of wildlife, Fire Island has been a special place for diverse plants, animals and people for centuries. Far from the pressure of nearby big-city life, dynamic barrier island beaches offer both solitude and camaraderie, and spiritual renewal.
There are three geographic units: Sandy Hook, New Jersey; Jamaica Bay and Staten Island, New York City. The NYC units include Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, Fort Tilden, Riis Park in Queens, Floyd Bennett Field and Canarsie Pier in Brooklyn. Staten Island has Great Kills Park, Miller Field and Fort Wadsworth. These sites and others make up the 27,000 acres of Gateway, one national park.
Harriet Tubman was guided by a deep faith and devotion to family, freedom, and community. After emancipating herself and members of her family, she moved them from Ontario, Canada to Fleming and Auburn, New York in 1859. Central New York was a center for progressive thought, abolition, and women’s suffrage where Tubman continued to fight for human rights and dignity until she died in 1913.
Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area stretches from New York City to Albany. The area resources exhibit the roles of freedom and dignity in the valley's history, and the historical and contemporary role of commerce. Revolutionary War stories, famous residences, scenic parks and gardens, and landscape interpretations all contribute to the Hudson Valley's beauty and wealth of resources.
Designated by Congress in 2008, the Niagara Falls National Heritage Area stretches from the western boundary of Wheatfield, New York to the mouth of the Niagara River on Lake Ontario, including the communities of Niagara Falls, Youngstown, and Lewiston. The region is home to natural wonders, rich cultural traditions, and nationally significant historical sites.
Here, in 1777, during the American War for Independence, American troops battled and beat a British invasion force, marking the first time in world history that a British Army ever surrendered. This crucial victory secured essential foreign recognition and support, instigated world-wide wars, affirmed United States independence, and changed the face of the world.
Canoe through rapids and quiet pools as the Delaware River winds its way through a valley of swiftly changing scenery or fish amid rolling hills and riverfront villages in one of the finest fishing rivers in the northeastern United States. The clean water of the Delaware, the last major undammed river in the eastern United States, supports a healthy ecosystem and offers tranquility and excitement.
In 1781, General Rochambeau’s French Army joined forces with General Washington’s Continental Army to fight the British Army in Yorktown, Virginia. With the French Navy in support, the allied armies moved hundreds of miles to become the largest troop movement of the American Revolution. The effort and cooperation between the two sides led to a victory at Yorktown and secured American independence.
Located between Seneca and Cayuga lakes, Finger Lakes National Forest is one of the smallest National Forests. The Gorge Trail enters a small gorge in the forest, and the North Country Trail crosses part of the forest
New York has two Major League Baseball teams, the New York Yankees (based in the Bronx) and the New York Mets (based in Queens). New York is home to three National Hockey
League franchises: the New York Rangers in Manhattan, the New York Islanders in Brooklyn and the Buffalo Sabres in Buffalo. New York has two National Basketball Association
teams, the New York Knicks in Manhattan, and the Brooklyn Nets in Brooklyn. New York has one Major League Soccer team: New York City FC. Although the New York Red Bulls
represent the New York metropolitan area they play in Red Bull Arena, located in Harrison, New Jersey.
New York is the home of one National Football League team, the Buffalo Bills (based in the suburb of Orchard Park). Although the New York Giants and New York Jets represent
the New York metropolitan area and were previously located in New York City, they play in MetLife Stadium, located in East Rutherford, New Jersey, and both have their
headquarters and training facilities in New Jersey. The Meadowlands stadium hosted Super Bowl XLVIII in 2014, in which New York and New Jersey shared hosting duties.
New Team York Sports
NYC income tax: 2.907% - 3.876% (in addition to state tax)
Sales tax: 7% - 8.875%
Property tax: 1.65% average effective rate
Gas tax: 43.65 cents per gallon of regular gasoline, 39.43 cents per gallon of diesel
John F. Kennedy International Airport Photo by Walter Bibikow
New York Airports.
There are 162 public airports in New York. New York's airports are the busiest in the US as they carry more than 100 million passengers each year. New York Airports has the
latest aviation technology and offers helpful assistance to customers.
The international airports in New York are Albany International Airport in Albany, Buffalo International Airport in Buffalo, Massena International Airport in Massena, John
F. Kennedy International Airport in New York, Stewart International Airport in Newburgh, Plattsburgh International Airport in Plattsburgh, Rochester Greater International
Airport in Rochester and Syracuse Hancock International Airport in Syracuse. In addition to these New York airports, there are other international General Aviation airports
such as Sullivan County International Airport at Monticello, Niagara Falls International Airport at Niagara Falls, Ogdensburg International Airport at Ogdensburg and
Watertown International Airport at Watertown.
As a waterfront city, New York is home to an extensive ferry system that can get you uptown, downtown and across the rivers to Staten Island, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx and New Jersey.
The Staten Island Ferry is a staple of many morning commutes—and taking a ride on it is a must-do on any sightseeing itinerary. In use since 1905, the route between Staten Island and Manhattan's Whitehall Ferry Terminal is a glorious 5-mile, 25-minute mini-cruise with great views of the Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor and Lower Manhattan—and it's free.
NYC Ferry is a city-wide transportation network, with East River docks at 34th Street and Wall Street multiple stops in Brooklyn and Queens as well as Governors Island and Rockaway Beach. You can take a boat ride for the cost of a subway ride—and children under 44" ride for free. For the full map and schedule, visit the NYC Ferry website.
NY Waterway operates commuter ferries between points in Manhattan and New Jersey, and harbor and sightseeing cruises.
The Port of New York and New Jersey is the largest oil importing port and third largest container port in the nation. The commercial activity of the port of New York City, including the waterfronts of the five boroughs and nearby cities in New Jersey, since 1921 has been formalized under a single bi-state Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
Since the 1950s, the New York and Brooklyn commercial port has been almost
completely eclipsed by the container ship facility at nearby Port
Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal in Newark Bay, which is the largest such port
on the Eastern Seaboard.
Ferries and cruise ships
The harbor is still serviced by several cruise lines, commuter ferries, and tourist excursion boats. Although most ferry service is private, the Staten Island Ferry is operated by the New York City Department of Transportation. Passenger ship facilities are New York Passenger Ship Terminal, the Brooklyn Cruise Terminal at Red Hook, and MOTBY at Bayonne.
Amtrak offers 14 different routes that include a stop at New York's famous Penn Station. You'll see this iconic location and even be able to access Madison Square Garden without ever stepping foot outside. You're just steps away from accessing the subway system or Manhattan's downtown streets, all without having to find a parking spot.
New York is a diverse state with a lot of different roads. It stretches from Pennsylvania to New England and Canada and is bordered by Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Rhode Island (in the Long Island Sound; no roads cross this border but a passenger ferry does), Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, Québec, and Ontario. The terrain ranges from New York City to farmland, the Great Lakes, and the Adirondack, Catskill, and Palisades mountain ranges.
Road and bridge construction and maintenance is divided between several agencies: the New York State Department of Transportation, the New York State Thruway Authority, the New York State Bridge Authority, the New York City Mass Transit Authority, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, and the New York City Department of Transportation.
Other minor authorities include the Thousand Islands Bridge Authority, the Ogdensburg Bridge and Port Authority, the Seaway International Bridge Corporation, the Niagara Falls Bridge Commission, the Buffalo and Fort Erie Public Bridge Authority, and the Pennsylvania-New York Joint Interstate Bridge Commission. Other agencies that maintain some of the parkways include the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the Palisades Interstate Park Commission, and the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation, and Historic Preservation. Some touring routes and parkways are also maintained by the counties and municipalities.
The easiest and quickest way to travel around NYC is by public subway train. Riding the subway is also a fantastic way to feel like a local during your stay in New York.
• Subway trains operate 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
• For $2.75 (the cost of a single ride when using a pay-per-ride MetroCard), you can use the system citywide and transfer to other subway lines as many times as you need, as long as you don't exit the system through a turnstile.
• You can transfer from bus to subway or vice versa within two hours of using your MetroCard. (The free transfer does not apply if you leave a subway station through a turnstile and want to get on another subway line.)
• Subway stations on the same line are generally about 8 to 10 blocks apart.
• The subway does not travel to Staten Island. To get there, board the free Staten Island Ferry or take a bus.
You can get a free subway map from booth attendants or at any Official NYC Information Center, or download one from our Maps & Guides section. You can also visit the MTA's Trip Planner for a customized route (but it's still a good idea to carry a subway map when you're out and about). The Trip Planner offers routes for MTA bus lines as well. Subway lines sometimes change routes or temporarily stop running—especially on weekends and late nights during weekdays—so be sure to check for up-to-date MTA service information at mta.info or by calling 718-330-1234.
New York Housing
The median home value in New York is $674,500. New York home values have gone up 5.4% over the past year and predictions
are they will rise 7.4% within the next year. The median price of homes currently listed in New York is $825,000 while the median price of homes that sold is $567,400. The median rent price in New York is $2,900, which is the same as the New York-Newark-Jersey City Metro median of $2,900.
New York Association of Realtors New York State Board of Real Estate New York Real Estate Listings
New York Cities & Towns
There are 62 counties in New York State containing 932 towns and 62 cities. The largest city by
population in the state is New York City, home to 8,175,133 people and a little over 300 square miles of land including water). The least populous city is Sherrill, with
only 3,071 inhabitants. The smallest city by area is Mechanicville, which covers 0.91 square miles (of which 0.08 square miles is water).
List of New York Cities and Towns
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