History, Geography, Homes, and State Resources of Indiana
Indiana USA Map
The Hoosier State developed with a rich mixture of sports, business, industry, education along with truly American landscapes. From the historic Madison, IN main street,
with its flawlessly maintained storefronts from the turn-of-the-century, to the latest in technology at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, here is a state with a well
preserved history while it has reinvented itself to continue earning its "Crossroads of America". nickname
There are numerous blooming shrubs, trees and weeds in this Hoosier State, therefore if you have allergies or hay fever, be sure to check out the pollen count along with
taking appropriate measures to safeguard your health.
First explored for France by Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, in 1679–1680, the region figured importantly in the Franco-British struggle for North America that
culminated with British victory in 1763. George Rogers Clark led American forces against the British in the area during the Revolutionary War and, prior to becoming a
state, Indiana was the scene of frequent Indian uprisings until the victories of Gen. Anthony Wayne at Fallen Timbers in 1794 and Gen. William Henry Harrison at
Tippecanoe in 1811.
During the 19th century, Indiana was the site of several experimental communities, including those established by George Rapp and Robert Owen at New Harmony.
Indiana had a humid continental climate, with cold winters and hot, wet summers, with only the extreme southern portion of the state lying within the humid subtropical climate, which receives more
rainfall than other parts of Indiana. ... Temperatures generally diverge from the north and south
parts of the state.
The largest educational institution on the state is the Indiana University, whose flagship campus was confirmed in 1820 as Indiana Seminary. Indiana State University was founded in 1865 as
a state standard school. Purdue University was chartered in 1869 as a Land-Grant College. The three other independent state universities are Vincennes University (founded in
1801 by the Indiana Territory), Ball State University (1918) and the University of Southern Indiana (1965 as ISU - Evansville).
In the US News and World Report, in 2013, the state ranked several universities among the best in the 2013 ranking. The University of Notre Dame is among the top 20, with
Indiana University Bloomington and Purdue University among the Top 100.
During 2017, Indiana's civilian labor force was nearly 3.4 million, the 15th largest in the
nation. Indiana has an unemployment rate of 3.4 percent, lower than the national average. A
big percentage of Indiana's income comes from manufacturing. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, nearly 17 percent of the state's non-farm workforce is employed in manufacturing, the highest of any state in the
nation The state's five top exports were motor vehicles and auto parts, pharmaceutical products, industrial machinery, optical and medical equipment, and electric machinery.
Flora and Fauna
Indiana State Flower - Peony
Indiana State Tree - Tulip Tree
Due to the state's relatively uniform climate, plant species are distributed fairly
evenly throughout Indiana. There are 124 native tree species, including 17
varieties of oak, as well as black walnut, sycamore, and tulip tree (yellow
poplar), the state tree. Fruit trees—apple, cherry, peach, and pear—are common.
Local indigenous species—now reduced because of industrialization and
urbanization—are the persimmon, black gum, and southern cypress along the Ohio
River; tamarack and bog willow in the northern marsh; and white pine, sassafras,
and pawpaw near Lake Michigan. American elderberry and bittersweet are common
shrubs, while various jack-in-the-pulpits and spring beauties are among the
indigenous wild flowers. The peony is the state flower.
Although the presence of wolves and coyotes has been reported occasionally, the red fox is Indiana's only common carnivorous mammal. Other native mammals are the common cottontail, muskrat, raccoon, opossum, and several types of squirrel.
Many waterfowl and marsh birds, including the black duck and great blue heron, inhabit northern Indiana, while the field sparrow, yellow warbler, and red-headed woodpecker nest in central Indiana. Various catfish, pike, bass, and sunfish are native to state waters.
The Indiana State House is the state capitol building of Indiana. Housing the Indiana General Assembly, the office of the Governor of Indiana, the Supreme Court of Indiana, and other state officials, it is located in the state capital Indianapolis at 200 West Washington Street. Built in 1888, it is the fifth building to house the state government.
The first statehouse, located in Corydon, Indiana, is still standing and is maintained as a state historic site. The second building was the old Marion County courthouse which was demolished and replaced in the early 20th century. The third building was a structure modeled on the Parthenon, but was condemned in 1877 because of structural defects and razed so the current statehouse could be built on its location.
The state's chief executive is the governor, elected to a 4-year term and
eligible for reelection, although ineligible to serve more than eight years in a
12-year period. A governor must be at least 30 years old, a US citizen for at
least five years, and a state resident for five years prior to election. Only
the governor may call special sessions of the legislature (limited to 30
legislative days or 40 calendar days). The governor may veto bills passed by the
legislature, but his veto can be overridden by a majority vote of the elected
members in each house. If a bill is left unsigned for seven days (whether or not
the legislature is in session), it becomes law.
Indiana's other top elected officials are the lieutenant governor, secretary of state, treasurer, auditor, attorney general, and superintendent of public instruction. Each is elected to a four-year term. The lieutenant governor, elected jointly with the governor, is constitutionally empowered to preside over the state senate and to act as governor if the office should become vacant or the incumbent is unable to discharge his duties.
In order to vote in Indiana, a person must be a US citizen, be at least 18 years old, and have been a resident of the voting precinct for 30 days before the next election. Those jailed for criminal convictions may not vote.
Indiana is known as the home of the Indy 500 race and as the site of several prestigious universities. Located in the Midwest, this diverse state has a population of close to 6 million people. In Indianapolis, visitors can find all types of historical and cultural attractions, including monuments, museums, drive-in theaters, and entertainment venues.
Michigan City Lighthouse
Lighthouses in Indiana
- List of all lighthouses in the state of Indiana as identified by the United
States Coast Guard and other historical sources.
Focal height and coordinates are taken from the 1907 United States Coast Guard Light List, while location and dates of activation, automation, and deactivation are taken from the United States Coast Guard Historical information site for lighthouses.
Holiday World & Splashin' Safari (known as Santa Claus Land before 1984) is a combination theme park and water park located near Interstate 64 and U.S. 231 in Santa Claus, Indiana. The theme park is divided into four sections that celebrate Christmas, Halloween, Thanksgiving and the Fourth of July with rides, live entertainment, games, and attractions.
Holiday World is known for its three wooden roller coasters: The Raven, The Legend, and The Voyage, as well as for Thunderbird, a B&M launched Wing Coaster and The Howler. The safari-themed water park includes the world's two longest water coasters: Wildebeest and Mammoth, numerous family raft rides and water slides, two wave pools, a lazy river, two family "tipping bucket" water-play attractions, plus dedicated children's slides and play areas.
Indiana Beach is an amusement park and resort located on Lake Shafer in Monticello, Indiana.
The resort was developed by the Spackman family who owned it from 1926-2008.
Initally named Ideal Beach, the amusement park began as a small lakeside beach with a bath house and refreshment stand. In 1927, the first thrill attraction opened, and from that point, it began to expand. In the 1930s and 1940s it was popular for the Ideal Beach Ballroom, featuring well-known bands
The British flag would not be raised above Fort Sackville Feb. 25, 1779. At 10 a.m., the garrison surrendered to American Colonel George Rogers Clark. His American army, aided by French residents of the Illinois country, had marched through freezing floodwaters to gain this victory. The fort’s capture assured United States claims to the frontier, an area nearly as large as the original 13 states.
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore hugs 15 miles of the southern shore of Lake Michigan and has much to offer. Whether you enjoy scouting for rare species of birds or flying kites on the sandy beach, the national lakeshore's 15,000 acres will continually enchant you. Hikers will enjoy 50 miles of trails over rugged dunes, mysterious wetlands, sunny prairies, meandering rivers and peaceful forests.
The Pioneer Mothers Memorial Forest is 88 acres (36 ha) of old-growth forest in Hoosier National Forest. The forest's Charles C. Deam Wilderness is Indiana's only wilderness area
As of 2013 Indiana has produced more National Basketball Association (NBA) players per capita than any other state. Muncie has produced the most per capita of any
American city, with two other Indiana cities in the top ten. It has a rich basketball heritage that reaches back to the formative years of the sport itself. The
Indiana Pacers of the NBA play their home games at Bankers Life Fieldhouse; they began play in 1967 in the American Basketball Association (ABA) and joined the NBA when
the leagues merged in 1976. Although James Naismith developed basketball in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1891, Indiana is where high school basketball was born. In 1925,
Naismith visited an Indiana basketball state finals game along with 15,000 screaming fans and later wrote "Basketball really had its origin in Indiana, which remains the
center of the sport." The 1986 film Hoosiers is inspired by the story of the 1954 Indiana state champions Milan High School. Professional basketball player Larry Bird was
born in West Baden Springs and was raised in French Lick. He went on to lead the Boston Celtics to the NBA championship in 1981, 1984, and 1986.
Indianapolis is home to the Indianapolis Colts. The Colts are members of the South Division of the American Football Conference. The Colts have roots back to 1913 as the
Dayton Triangles. They became an official team after moving to Baltimore, MD, in 1953. In 1984, the Colts relocated to Indianapolis, leading to an eventual rivalry with
the Baltimore Ravens. After calling the RCA Dome home for 25 years, the Colts currently play their home games at Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis. While in Baltimore,
the Colts won the 1970 Super Bowl. In Indianapolis, the Colts won Super Bowl XLI, bringing the franchise total to two. In recent years the Colts have regularly competed
in the NFL playoffs.
Income tax: 3.23% statewide flat rate, with additional county taxes up to 3.38%
Sales tax: 7%
Property tax: 0.87% average effective rate
Gas tax: 41.9 cents per gallon of regular gasoline and 48.0 cents per gallon of diesel
Indianapolis International Airport Photo by G.E. Avboygeek.
Port at Indiana
There are 114 public airports in Indiana. Indiana airports have technologically advanced systems and helpful staff.
Indiana International Airport is Terre Haute International Airport, Fort Wayne International Airport, Gary / Chicago International Airport and Indianapolis International Airport.
Indianapolis International Airport receives more than 8.5 million passengers each year. The airport has 18 airlines flying from its premises. Some of the major airlines flying from this airport are America West Airlines, Air Tran, Air Canada, Continental Airlines, Frontier Airlines and United Airlines.
Indiana annually ships over 70 million tons of cargo by water each year, which ranks 14th among all states
in nthe nation. Over half of Indiana's borders are water, which includes 400 miles of direct access to two major freight transportation arteries: the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway (via Lake Michigan) and the Inland Waterway System (via the Ohio River). The Ports of Indiana manages three major ports which include Burns Harbor, Jeffersonville, and Mount Vernon.
In Evansville, three public and several private port facilities receive year-round service from five major barge lines operating on the Ohio River. Evansville has been a U.S. Customs Port of Entry for more than 125 years. Because of this, it is possible to have international cargo shipped to Evansville in bond. The international cargo can then clear Customs in Evansville rather than a coastal port.
Indiana has more than 4,255 railroad route miles, of which 91 percent are operated by Class I railroads, principally CSX Transportation and the Norfolk Southern Railway. Other Class I railroads in Indiana include the Canadian National Railway and Soo Line Railroad, a Canadian Pacific Railway subsidiary, as well as Amtrak. The remaining miles are operated by 37 regional, local, and switching and terminal railroads.
The South Shore Line is one of the country's most notable commuter rail systems, extending from Chicago to South Bend. Indiana is currently implementing an extensive rail plan that was prepared in 2002 by the Parsons Corporation. Many recreational trails, such as the Monon Trail and Cardinal Greenway, have been created from abandoned rails routes.
The major U.S. Interstate highways in Indiana are Interstate 64 (I-64), I-65, I-265, I-465, I-865, I-69, I-469, I-70, I-74, I-80, I-90, I-94, and I-275. The various highways intersecting in and around Indianapolis, along with its historical status as a major railroad hub, and the canals that once crossed Indiana, are the source of the state's motto, the Crossroads of America. There are also many U.S. routes and state highways maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation. These are numbered according to the same convention as U.S. Highways. Indiana allows highways of different classifications to have the same number. For example, I-64 and Indiana State Road 64 both exist (rather close to each other) in Indiana, but are two distinct roads with no relation to one another.
The median home value in Indiana is $137,300. Indiana home values have gone up 9.4% over the past year and predictions
are they will rise 2.8% within the next year. The median list price per square foot in Indiana is $104. The median price of homes currently listed in Indiana is $179,900. The median rent price in Indiana is $1,075.