(Pinaceae Picea glauca)
Adopted in 1947.
The Black Hills spruce, Pinaceae
Picea glauca, a member of the
evergreen family, is the state tree. The
pyramid-shaped tree is characterized by
dense foliage of short, blue-green
needles and slender cones.
White spruce also known as Canadian
spruce, skunk spruce, cat spruce, Black
Hills spruce, western white spruce,
Alberta white spruce, and Porsild
spruce, is adapted to a wide range of
edaphic and climatic conditions of the
Northern Coniferous Forest. The wood of
white spruce is light, straight grained,
and resilient. It is used primarily for
pulpwood and as lumber for general
- Leaf: Evergreen, stiff,
1/3 to 3/4 inch long, green to
blue-green in color, square in cross
section. When crushed a pungent odor
is apparent. Needle tips are
pointed, but not sharp.
- Flower: Monoecious; males
reddish but turning yellow; females
- Fruit: Cones are 1 1/2 to
2 1/2 inches long, cigar-shaped,
light brown in color. Scales are
rounded with entire margins.
Maturing in August.
- Twig: Slender, light
brown or pale, sometimes glaucous,
hairless. Needles borne on woody
- Bark: Thin, gray-brown in
color, smooth, later flaky or scaly.
- Form: Conical,
||Plantae -- Plants
||Spermatophyta – Seed
||Coniferophyta – Conifers
||Pinaceae – Pine family
||Picea A. Dietr. –
Picea glauca (Moench)
Voss – white spruce
Dendrology at Virginia Tech
U.S. Department of Agriculture