USA Official State Flower Official Vermont State Flower


Red Clover

(Trifolium pratense)
Adopted on February 1, 1895.


No. 159 of the Acts of 1894, effective February 1, 1895, designated the Red Clover,  Trifolium pratense, as the official State Flower. Both an integral part of many a cultivated hay field and a common sight along numerous Vermont roadsides, the Red Clover is symbolic of Vermont's scenic countryside generally and of its dairy farms in particular. Oddly enough, however, Trifolium pratense is not a native of Vermont but was "naturalized" from Europe.

From Office of the Secretary of State, Vermont Legislative Directory and State Manual, Biennial Session, 1993-1994, p. 15.
  • Longevity: Perennial (acts as Biennial)
  • Palatability: High
  • Winter Hardiness: Good
  • Drought Tolerance: Fair
  • Cool or Warm Season: Cool
  • Bloat Hazard: Yes
  • Use and Comments: Excellent pasture renovation crop, short-termhay crop.
  • Distribution in U.S.: Eastern half and Northwest.
  • Height: 12-36 inches.
  • Leaves: Palmately trifoliolate; leaflets not serrated; inverted V-shaped "water mark" usually present; large stipules; stems leaves and petioles pubescent.
  • Inflorescence: Heads consisting of up to 125 flowers; rose purple or deep purplish-red; heads nested in 2-3 leaves.
  • Roots: Taproot.
  • Soil
    • Drainage: Somewhat Poorly Drained
    • Fertility: Medium
    • pH: 6.2-6.8
  • Seed
    • Color: Pure yellow tp purple
    • Shape: Shortened mit
    • Pounds Per Bushel: 60
    • Seeds Per Pound: 275,000
    • Seeding Rate: 8-10 pounds PLS per acre.
    • Emergence Time (Days): 7
    • Optimum Germ. Temp. (F): 70


Taxonomic Hierarchy
Kingdom Plantae -- Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta -- Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Rosidae –
Order Fabales –
Family Fabaceae – Pea family
Genus Trifolium L. – clover
Species Trifolium pratense L. – red clover